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Formation of the USA

The most prominent episode from the history of the USA is the formation of the state itself.

The growing independence and economic strength of colonies disturbed Great Britain. The colonies were viewed as a source of raw materials and a market for England alone.

After the Seven Years War (17561763) the British Government increased its pressure on the colonies and put all pos?sible obstacles in the way of their independent industrial development and trade. It imposed new taxes and duties, which affected the interests of the colonists. As a result in Philadelphia in 1774 merchants, ship-owners, lawyers and others revolted and decided to stop trade with Britain and boycott the British goods.

A prologue to the War for Independence in the North America was the Boston tea-party (1773), as it was called. The British Government granted the East India Company the right of tax-free export of tea to the colonies. It caused indignation among the colonists, and especially the merchants involved in the sale of tea. In December 1773 a group of members of the organization called the Sons of Liberty boarded the British ships in the port of Boston and dumped the whole cargo of tea into the harbour.

Soon after that the port was closed, all kinds of public gatherings were prohibited. All these measures further sharpened the conflict between Great Britain and the colonies.

The War for Independence of the American colonies began with a battle of colonists against British troops in April 1775 at Concord and at Lensington not far from Boston.

On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress declared the united colonies to be independent of Great Britain. The new state was called the United States of America and the 4th of July became its national holiday. The Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence proclaiming the equality of all people.

Thomas Jefferson, a follower of the British philosophers, was the author of the Declaration.

The battle at Saratoga (1777), when the Americans forced a large British army to capitulate, was a turning point in the long, hard War for Independence. The Americans were supported by France.

In 1783 Britain finally and formally recognized American independence. George Washington was elected the first president of the new republic. Later on his name was given to the capital which was built in the federal District of Columbia.

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